Инвестиционные технологии исламских банков и перспективы становления беспроцентного банковского сектора в России

  • Олег Редькин Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Университетская наб., 7–9
  • Антон Рудоквас Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Университетская наб., 7–9
  • Инесе Тенберга Российская Федерация, Санкт-Петербург, Биржевой пер., 6Б-2

Аннотация

Мировой экономический кризис 2008–2009 гг. стимулировал переосмысление основ привычной финансовой модели и поиск возможностей ее нравственной перезагрузки. В связи с этим инвестиционные технологии ведения банковского дела приобретают большое значение. Сегодня на развитие нового тренда в области банковских инвестиций оказывает влияние деятельность исламских банков, которым присущ отказ от взимания и выплаты процента, а также от проведения спекулятивных операций. Исламское банковское дело дает возможность привлекать альтернативные источники финансирования и при этом не ставит финансовую политику национальных государств в прямую зависимость от стоимости кредитных денег, что подразумевает новые возможности для инвесторов. Инвестиционная деятельность исламских банков считается одним из самых эффективных инструментов, способных обеспечить финансовую стабильность и устойчивое экономическое развитие. Исламское банковское дело не только объединяет активы инвесторов, исповедующих ислам, но и мобилизует их духовный потенциал. Однако для российской юридической науки деятельность исламских банков остается мало изученным и слабо понимаемым явлением. В статье раскрываются основные аспекты исламского права, запретительные императивы и нравственно-ценностные ориентиры деятельности исламских банков. Особое внимание уделяется концепции справедливости в исламском банковском деле, а также осуждению роста денег в христианской традиции. Авторы предлагают принять закон об инвестиционно-доверительной банковской деятельности, что позволит создать в  России два финансовых сектора (процентный и беспроцентный) и отграничить кредитные (конвенциональные) коммерческие банки, специализирующиеся на процентно-спекулятивной банковской деятельности, от коммерческих банков, ориентированных на неспекулятивную банковскую деятельность по модели исламских банков. Для создания коммерческих банков нового образца следует заимствовать частноправовую конструкцию траста.

Ключевые слова:

исламское банковское дело, исламский банк, инвестиции, незаконный рост, риба, справедливость, инвестиционно-доверительный банковский сектор

Скачивания

Данные скачивания пока недоступны.
 

Биографии авторов

Олег Редькин, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Университетская наб., 7–9

доктор филологических наук, профессор

Антон Рудоквас, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Университетская наб., 7–9

доктор юридических наук, профессор

Инесе Тенберга, Российская Федерация, Санкт-Петербург, Биржевой пер., 6Б-2

Советник по вопросам финансового права ЕС, эксперт в области исламского банковского дела

Литература

Akhmed, Khabib, Khan, Tarikulla. 2010. Risk management in Islamic banking. Hassan M., Lewis M. (eds) Handbook of Islamic banking. Astana, Saryarka Publ.: 160–178. (In Russian)

Amara, Marina I., Babenkova, Svetlana Yu. 2017. Legal Regulation of Supervisory Process over Financial Institutions in the Arab Countries. Sovremennoe parvo 11: 130–145. (In Russian)

as-Saadi, Abdu A. 2002. The joy of the pious: The explanation of the brief, but full of meaning of the words of the Prophet. Moscow. (In Russian)

Ash-Shami, Abdulla. 2010. Sharia regulation and model for Islamic finance. Minbar. Islamic Studies 3 (2): 21–30. (In Russian)

Atikullah, Hj A. 2013. The Elements of Qimar (wagering) and Gharar (uncertainty) in the Contract of Insurance Revisited. Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance 9 (2): 89–102. https:// doi:10.12816/0001603.

Auda, Dzhasser. 2015. Sharia goals: beginner’s guide. Moscow, Mardzhani Publishing house. (In Russian)

Ayub, Muhammad. 2007. Understanding Islamic Finance. Chippenham, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Babenkova, Svetlana Yu. 2017. The prudential supervision of Islamic banks as hedging instrument from the economical crisis. Putevoditel’ predprinimatelia 35: 38–46. (In Russian)

Bekkin, Renat I. 2014. Features of Sharia Supervision in Islamic Financial Institutions in Muslim and Non-Muslim Countries. Vestnik of Saint-Petersburg University. Economy 3: 148–164. (In Russian)

Bekkin, Renat I. 2017. Islamic economy in “Islamic state”? Vestnik MGIMO Universiteta 6 (57): 132–142. (In Russian)

Bekkin, Renat I. 2013. Islamic or muslim law? (To the issue of legal aspects of islamic finances). Problemy sovremennoi ekonomiki 4 (48): 429–430. (In Russian)

Bem-Baverk, Eugen von. 1909. Capital and profits. History and criticism of the theories of interest on capital. Saint Petersburg, A. G. Rozen Publ. (In Russian)

Cariota-Ferrara, Luigi. 1933. I negozi fiduciari: trasferimento, cessione e girata a scopo di mandato e di garanzia: processo fiduciario. Padova, Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani.

Chamley, Christophe, Kotlikoff, Laurence J., Polemarchakis, Herakles. 2012. Limited-Purpose Banking — Moving from “Trust Me” to “Show Me” Banking. The American Economic Review 102 (3): 113–119. https://doi:10.1257/aer.102.3.113.

Chokaev, Bekkhan V. 2015. Islamic finance: opportunities for the Russian economy. Voprosy ekonomiki 6: 106–127. (In Russian)

Colon, Julio C. 2011. Choice of law and Islamic finance. Texas International Law Journal 46 (2): 411– 435.

Davaba, Ashraf M. 2017. The blessed work of a Muslim. Useful knowledge for business people pro-essing Islam: trade, property, income management, charity for the benefit of the community, the state and themselves. Moscow, Eksmo Publ. (In Russian)

De Soto, Khesus U. 2008. Money, bank credit and economic cycles. Chelyabinsk, Obshchestvo Publ. (In Russian)

Diugi, Leon. 1919. General transformations of civil law since the Napoleonic Code. Moscow, State Publ. (In Russian)

El’gaud, Latifa M., L’iuis, Mervin K.2010. Islamic critique of conventional financing. Hassan M., Lewis M. (eds) Handbook of Islamic banking. Astana, Saryarka Publ.: 54–64. (In Russian)

Eshli, Uil’iam D. 1897. Economic history of England in connection with economic theory. Moscow. (In Russian)

Farooq, Mohammad O. 2011. Qard Hasan, Wadiah/Amanah and Bank Deposits: Applications and Misapplications of Some Concepts in Islamic Banking. Arab Law Quarterly 25 (2): 115–146. https://doi:10.1163/157302511X553985.

Gabbasov, Rinat R., Vakhitov, Galim Z. 2014. Regulation of Islamic banks. Bankovskoe delo 9: 25–29. (In Russian)

Ghazanfar, Shaikh M., Islahi, Abdul A. 2003. Economic Thought of an Arab Scholastic: Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (AH450–505/1058–1111AD). Ghazanfar S. (ed.) Medieval Islamic economic thought: filling the “Great Gap” in European economics. London, RoutledgeCurzon: 23–44.

Ghazanfar, Shaikh M., Islahi, Abdul A. 2003. Explorations in Medieval Arab Islamic economic thought: some aspects of Ibn Qayyim’s economics (AH691–751/1292–1350AD). Ghazanfar S. (ed.) Medieval Islamic economic thought: filling the “Great Gap” in European economics. London, RoutledgeCurzon: 128–141.

Girgas, Vladimir F. 2006. Arabic-Russian dictionary to the Quran and the hadith. St. Petersburg, Dilia Publ. (In Russian)

Guseinova, Zamira I. 2001. The concept of justice in medieval Arab-Muslim thought: PhD Thesis. Moscow, RAS Institute of philosophy. (In Russian)

Iasin, Kamel. 1999. Sources of Muslim law: PhD Thesis. St. Petersburg. (In Russian)

Islahi, Abdul A. 2005. Contributions of Muslim scholars to economic thought and analysis (11–905 A.H./632–1500 A.D.). Jeddah, Islamic Economics Research Centre King Abdulaziz University.

Iqbal, Munawar. 2013. Islamic finance: An attractive new way of financial intermediation. International Journal of Banking and Finance 10 (2): 1–24.

Ivanov, Nikolai A. 1982. On some socio-economic aspects of traditional Islam. Gankovskii Iu. (ed.) Islam in the Near and the Middle East. Moscow, Nauka Publ.: 40–58. (In Russian)

Jalil, Abdullaah, Ramli, Mohd A., Shahwan, Syahidawati. 2014. The four introductory theories of fiqh muamalat. Nilai, Wisdom Publication.

Kabbara, Abdulrahman H. S. 1988. Islamic banking: a case study of Kuwait. Loughborough, Loughborough University of Technology.

Kamenetz, Anya. 2006. Generation Debt: Why Now Is a Terrible Time to Be Young. New York, Riverhead Books.

Kanaev, Aleksander V. 2017. Credit policy of the Ancient Russia in the Short Edition of Russkaya Pravda. Lukovskaia D., Dunaeva N. (eds) Millennium of the Pravda Russkaya: history of the ancient Russian law, results and prospects of its studying. St. Petersburg, Presidential Library named after Boris Yeltsin: 106–124. (In Russian)

Kanaev, Aleksander V. 2018. The formation of the credit relations system in Moscow state (15th–17th centuries). Lukovskaia D., Dunaeva N. (eds) The legal culture of Moscow Rus (15th–17th centuries): To the 520th anniversary of the first all-Russian Code of Laws (Sudebnik). St. Petersburg, Presidential Library named after Boris Yeltsin: 148–169. (In Russian)

Kay, John. 2009. Narrow Banking: The Reform of Banking Regulation. London.

Khaidarova, Muatar S. 1985. Formation and Development of Muslim Law in the Arab Caliphate (12th–13th centuries). Moscow. (In Russian)

Khan, Muhammad A. 2003. Islamic economics and finance: a glossary. 2nd ed. London, Taylor & Francis Group.

Kicha, Maria V. 2017. Fatwa as a special kind of legal doctrine in the legal systems of the Middle East. Nauka i obrazovanie: khoziaistvo i ekonomika; predprinimatel’stvo; pravo i upravlenie 8 (87): 55–57. (In Russian)

Kiamilev, Said Kh. 1987. On the interpretation of the quranic terms kyst and adl. Kiamilev S., Levin Z., Smilianskaia I. (eds) Socio-political views in Islam: history and modernity. Moscow, Nauka Publ.: 98–107. (In Russian)

Kirabaev, Nur S. 1987. Social philosophy of the Muslim East: Middle Ages. Moscow, Publishing house of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. (In Russian)

Le Goff, Zhak. 2010. The Middle ages and money: an essay in historical anthropology. St. Petersburg, Eurasia Publ. (In Russian)

Lenkin, Sergei L. 2017. Orthodox banking in Russia. Evraziiskii soiuz uchenykh 9–2 (42): 64–67. (In Russian)

Levin, Zalman I., Smilianskaia, Irina M. 1984. Islam and problems of social development of countries. Narody Azii i Afriki 1: 101–109. (In Russian)

Lewis, Mervyn K. 2011. Ethical principles in Islamic business and banking transactions. Ariff M., Iqbal M. (eds) The Foundations of Islamic Banking: Theory, Practice and Education. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar: 39–50.

Lukovskaia, Dzhenevra I. 1972. Sociological trend in French theory. Leningrad, Leningrad University Publ. (In Russian)

Mazurina, Tat’iana Yu., Sharipov, Shukrullokhon S. 2019. Stability, efficiency and financial risks of islamic banks in conditions of instability of global financial system. Upravlenie 7 (1):105–113. (In Russian)

Miloslavskii, Georgii V., Petrosian, Iurii A., Piotrovskii, Mikhail B., Prozorov, Stanislav M. 1991. Islam: Encyclopedic dictionary. Moscow, Nauka Publ. (In Russian)

Mingatin, Marat G. 2015. Partnership banking: theory and practice. Minbar. Islamic Studies 8 (1): 89–97. (In Russian)

Moghul, Umar F., Ahmed, Arshad A. 2003. Contractual Forms in Islamic Finance Law and Islamic Inv. Co. of the Gulf (Bahamas) Ltd. v. Symphony Gems N.V. & Ors.: A First Impression of Islamic Finance. Fordham International Law Journal 27 (1): 150–194.

Mohseni-Cheraghlou, Amin. 2017. Financial Inclusion and Poverty Alleviation in Muslim-majority Countries: The Role of Islamic Finance and Qard Hassan. Zulkhibri M., Ismail A. (eds) Financial Inclusion and Poverty Alleviation. Cham, Palgrave Macmillan: 141–197.

Muliukov, Bulat. 2014. An important factor in the success of an Islamic financial company — the presence of a Sharia expert with a high level of authority in the Muslim community. Rynok tsennykh bumag 10: 14–15. (In Russian)

Naumkin, Vitalii. 2017. On the concept of sustainable development in slam. Gumanitarii: aktual’nye problemy gumanitarnoi nauki i obrazovaniia 1: 28–35. (In Russian)

Nazari, Khasan, Mirdzhalili, Seied Kh., Davudi, Parviz. 2014. Money in Islamic economy. Moscow, Sadra Publ. (In Russian)

Nienkhaus, Fol’ker. 2010. Management of Islamic banks. Hassan M., Lewis M. (eds) Handbook of Islamic banking. Astana, Saryarka: 145–159. (In Russian)

Novikova, Ramilia G. 2016. Theoretical foundations of legal regulation of financial relations in Islamic law: PhD Thesis. Moscow, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation. (In Russian)

Pennacchi, George. 2012. Narrow Banking. Annual Review of Financial Economics 4: 141–159. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-financial-110311-101758.

Pokrovskii, Iosif A. 2004. History of Roman law. Moscow, Statut Publ. (In Russian)

Pollard, John F. 2005. Money and the Rise of the Modern Papacy: Financing the Vatican, 1850–1950. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Puder, Markus, Rudokvas, Anton D. 2019. How Trust-Like is Russia’s Fiduciary Management? Answers From Louisiana. Louisiana Law Review 79 (4): 1071–1102.

Pugachev, Valerii V. 2018. The doctrine of sources of Islamic law as found in the writings of Abul A’la Mawdudi. Vestnik Volzhskogo universiteta imeni V. N. Tatishcheva 1 (2): 32–41. (In Russian)

Rosenthal, Franz. 1974. Gambling in Islam. Leiden, E. J. BRILL.

Rudokvas, Anton D. 2018. Affidamento fiduciario in San Marino: Proposal for the Commonwealth of the Independent States. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Law 9 (3): 370–382. https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu14.2018.307.

Rudokvas, Anton D. 2017. Trust and Fiduciary Ownership in Russia. KLRI Journal of Law and Legislation 7 (2): 43–70.

Samigullin, Venir K. 2006. Islam and law: experience of comprehension. Ufa, Gilem Publ. (In Russian)

Schacht, Joseph. 1982. An introduction to Islamic law. New York, Oxford University Press.

Shedov, Denis V. 2016. Islamic law in the contemporary scientific discourse. Islam v sovremennom mire 12 (3): 219–232. (In Russian)

Shifdar, Betsi Ya. 1981. Ibn Sina. Moscow, Nauka Publ. (In Russian)

Siukiiainen, Leonid R. 2016. Constitutional status of sharia as main source of legislation in Arabic countries. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshei shkoly ekonomiki 4: 205–222. (In Russian)

Siukiiainen, Leonid R. 2010. General principles of fiqh as a legal expression of ethical values of islam. Ishrak: Ezhegodnik islamskoi filosofii 1: 219–241. (In Russian)

Siukiiainen, Leonid R. 2010. Shariat as the source of legislation. Constitutional theory and practice in the Arab countries. Tumanov A. (ed.) Parliamentarism: problems of theory, history, practice: collection of scientific articles to the 60th anniversary of the honored lawyer of the Russian Federation, doctor of law, Professor Isakov Vladimir Borisovich. Moscow, Urlitinform Publ.: 105–118. (In Russian)

Siukiiainen, Leonid R. 2016. Shariat, Fiqh, Islamic law: The Problem of the Relation. Alikberov A. (ed.) Ars Islamica: In Honour of Stanislav Mikhaylovich Prozorov. Moscow, Nauka Publ.: 604–619. (In Russian)

Skuzovatova, Ol’ga G. 2016. Place the Orthodox concept of the bank in modern economic and financial theory. Ekonomicheskii zhurnal 1 (41): 64–85. (In Russian)

Smirnov, Andrei V. 2005. Muslim ethics as a system. Eticheskaia mysl’ 6: 51–75. (In Russian)

Stepaniants, Marietta T. 1982. Muslim concepts in philosophy and politics (19th–20th centuries). Moscow, Nauka Publ. (In Russian)

Tenberga, Inese. 2017. Ethic Compass of Islamic Banking. Zakon 1: 156–167. (In Russian)

Tenberga, Inese. 2019. Ideological and legal aspects of Islamic banking and the process of formation of interest-free banking in russia within the context of expanding sanctions policy. Zakon 3: 116–137. (In Russian)

Tenberga, Inese. 2016. Islamic Banking — a new trend towards the development of banking law. Zakon 8: 131–141. (In Russian)

Tenberga, Inese. 2017. Prohibition of unlawful interest (riba) as grounds for the refusal from collection and payment of interest in Islamic banking. Zakon 4: 78–89. (In Russian)

The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. 1986. Vol. I (A–B). Leiden, E. J. BRILL.

The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. 1991. Vol. II (C–G). Leiden, E. J. BRILL.

The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. 1986. Vol. III (H–Iram). Leiden, E. J. BRILL.

The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. 1991. Vol. VI (MAHK–MID). Leiden, E. J. BRILL.

The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. 1995. Vol. VIII (NED–SAM). Leiden, E. J. BRILL.

The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. 2002. Vol. XI (W–Z). Leiden, E. J. BRILL.

Toutounchian, Iraj. 2009. Islamic Money and Banking Integrating Money in Capital Theory. Singapore, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.

Transformation of a traditional Bank into an Islamic Bank. Sharia standard No. 6. 2013. Moscow, Islamic book. (In Russian)

Vasil’ev, Il’ia A., Kozlikhin, Igor’ Yu. 2018. Fundamentals of the theory and history of Islamic law. St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg University Press. (In Russian)

Values and principles of Islamic economy. 2017. Moscow, Sadra Publ. (In Russian)

Visser, Hans. 2013. Islamic finance: principles and practice. Cheltenhem, Edward Elgar.

Waldmann, Albert. 1999. Das Wirtschaftswörterbuch: Arabisch-Deutsch Deutsch-Arabisch. München, Oldenbourg Verlag.

Zaripov, Zarip S., Rakhmanov, Abdumukhtor R. 2004. Islamic сode of morality and law. Lex Russica 2: 569–573. (In Russian)

Zul’karnai, Il’dar U. 2018. Cognitive model of comparative analysis of the influence of various financial systems on economic growth rates. Sovremennye informatsionnye tekhnologii i IT-obrazovanie 14 (4): 1035–1043. (In Russian)

Опубликован
2020-01-21
Как цитировать
Редькин, О., Рудоквас, А., & Тенберга, И. (2020). Инвестиционные технологии исламских банков и перспективы становления беспроцентного банковского сектора в России. Правоведение, 339(4), 692-713. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu25.2018.407
Раздел
Статьи