Уголовный кодекс Индии 1860 года: история создания и характерные черты

  • Нина Александровна Крашенинникова МГУ им. М. В. Ломоносова
  • Елена Николаевна Трикоз Российский университет дружбы народов; МГИМО (У) МИД России https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7331-480X

Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются история уголовно-правовой системы Британской Индии в XVIII–XIX вв., значение Правовой комиссии при генерал-губернаторе и личный вклад ее председателя Т. Б. Маколея в дело кодификации уголовного права Индии, источники и особенности структуры Уголовного кодекса 1860 г., его доктринальное и практическое значение вплоть до наших дней. Индийское право было полисистемным и включало две персонально-религиозные системы: индусское и мусульманское право. Официальная кодификация права в Индии стала возможной при генерал-губернаторе У. Бентинке, когда за дело взялся его юридический советник Т. Б. Маколей. Он составил проект Уголовного кодекса Индии в период с 1835 по 1837 г. На содержание проекта повлияла жесткая уголовная политика У. Бентинка, связанная с противодействием ритуальной преступности — группировкам тугов (разбойников-душителей) и практике сати (самосожжения вдов). Члены комиссии находились под сильным воздействием утилитарной философии Дж. Бентама, сторонника «всеобщей кодификации права». На проект повлиял «Кодекс Ливингстона» 1826 г. в североамериканском штате Луизиана, где проводилась последовательная гуманизация наказаний: отмена смертной казни, размежевание норм уголовного права и уголовного процесса, обособление «общей части» в структуре Кодекса. Систематизация колониального права Индии была комплексной и межотраслевой, она содержала элементы как кодификации, так и консолидации. Успешность УК Индии на практике была связана с систематическим подходом реформаторов, которые параллельно выработали такие базовые акты, как Гражданско-процессуальный кодекс 1859 г., Уголовно-процессуальный кодекс 1861 г., консолидированные Законы о полиции 1861 г. и доказательствах 1872 г. и др. В основе успеха этой широкомасштабной межотраслевой систематизации и унификации права лежали веские утилитарные причины, прежде всего необходимость обеспечить надежное управление и правопорядок на обширной территории нестабильных индийских княжеств. 

Ключевые слова:

кодификация права, правовая реформа, колониальное законодательство, уголовный кодекс, индусское право, мусульманское право, источники права

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Биографии авторов

Нина Александровна Крашенинникова , МГУ им. М. В. Ломоносова

доктор юридических наук, профессор

Елена Николаевна Трикоз , Российский университет дружбы народов; МГИМО (У) МИД России

кандидат юридических наук, доцент

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Опубликован
2017-08-01
Как цитировать
Крашенинникова , Н. А., & Трикоз , Е. Н. (2017). Уголовный кодекс Индии 1860 года: история создания и характерные черты. Правоведение, 61(4), 183-206. извлечено от https://pravovedenie.spbu.ru/article/view/6795
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