Torture and other forms of ill-treatment in criminal cases of the European Court of Human Rights
In criminal proceedings, respect for the honor and dignity of the individual is considered as one of the fundamental principles of criminal proceedings, proclaimed as such in a separate article of the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation. At the same time, coercion is represented by the condition of attaining the objectives of criminal procedural activities. Based on the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the legislation of the Russian Federation, the decisions of the Сonstitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the provisions of international legal acts, first of all, the Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of November 4, 1950, and the legal positions of the European Court of human rights, approaches to the distinction between the concept of “torture” and other forms of ill-treatment are analyzed. The Russian Federation has ratified a number of international treaties aimed at protecting against torture, some of which have been implemented in national legislation. However, the concept of “torture” and the difference between torture and other forms of ill-treatment are not disclosed in Russian legislation. This makes it difficult to assess the act correctly. Attention is drawn to the fact that the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November, 1950 strengthens the absolute and unconditional prohibition of torture. At the same time, the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950 article 3 merely distinguishes between “torture”, “inhuman treatment or punishment” and “degrading treatment or punishment”. In this regard, it is the analysis of the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights that allows us to get closer to their understanding. The analyzed approaches of the European Court of Human Rights do not contradict the concepts of “torture” and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, which are used in the text of a number of international acts. The analysis allows us to further understand such concepts as “cruel treatment”, “torture”, “inhuman treatment or punishment”, “degrading treatment or punishment” used in legislation and international legal acts. However, the author does not set as his goal an analysis of the criminal law aspects of the problem under consideration.
punishment, torture, cruel treatment, inhuman treatment, degrading treatment, criminal proceedings, detention
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